wars/commotions thru the Age

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Wars and Commotions

Begin Early in the age

 While wars and commotions running wildly throughout the Age would cause people to believe that the end must be coming, Jesus had warned the Church and the world to receive them as signs to the contrary. From time to time people would believe that the end of the world was at hand, whole nations and empires would panic. Christ wanted His discerning people to understand that the end was not yet and that the world would get the message as well. Wars, commotions, plagues and troubles mounted over time but the end of the world they were not, because all the “Signs’ had to be fulfilled before His return. He made this evident the day He spoke to His disciples on the Mount of Olives across the way from the city of Jerusalem, just days before He would climb another Mount called Calvary on His way to the cross of salvation.

At this time the Roman Empire was at peace. The civil wars under Julius and Augustus Caesar, still burning at the time of Christ’s birth, had died out and the so-called Pax Romana, or Roman Peace, under the rule of the Caesars, begun by Augustus’ defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium, had opened the era in which peace and safety had settled over the known world. When Jesus spoke His prophetic words on the Mount world peace had ruled for nearly half a century. If Christ’s words were merely a prediction, and not prophecy, they would have seemed highly unlikely by the hearers that day. It looked to the worldly eye as if Roman power would impose its peace and rule for the next thousand years, if not forever. But with the suicide of the last of Caesarian dynasty, Nero, in 68 AD a brief but bloody civil war ensued. Thirty five years after the prophecy on the Mount of Olives the first fissure in world peace began to be seen. In less than two years, the winner and new emperor of the commotion of the civil war had his son fulfill the first sign when Titus’ troops completely raised the Temple in Jerusalem to the ground. From this point on, expansion of roman rule ceased and commotions on every border plagued and disrupted the peace of the Empire. At the beginning of the second century AD the policies of Trajan and Hadrian began to fortify the borders of the empire against all barbarian incursions. Not coincidentally, the end of expansion of Rome coincided with the death of the last of the apostles, John, who had been exiled to the isle of Patmos in the Mediterranean around the year 90 AD where he penned the last book of the bible the Revelation of Jesus Christ., which can be said to mark the end of the birth of the Church and a new era for the expansion of the full gospel into the hearts of mankind.


Wars Commotions begin to beleaguer the world

     When the barbarian hordes descended upon the Roman Empire the Christians fell into a panic many times, believing the end had come. The Bubonic Plague spread panic and prediction of the end of the world. Christ knew that these horrific events and wars could jar the faithful into thinking the end had come. He warns them not to think so, there would still be many things yet to come, and much more time allotted for the salvation of the Gentiles.



Wars and Commotions

The Temple destruction kicked off the Age and set in motion the era of wars, rumors of wars, tumults and commotions that regularly disrupted society and the peace of the world in spite of the boast of the Caesars that they had brought a fabulous ‘Pax Romana’, or, Roman Peace to the world. Augustus, the Emperor at the time of Christ’s birth, had hired the world’s first press secretaries to create a propaganda that ballyhooed Rome as the world’s Savior. His uncle, Julius Caesar had begun the first daily newspaper which was the regular arm of this world-wide propaganda campaign of Rome as savior of the world. Chief in the emperor’s employ were Livy the revisionist historian and the real genius of geniuses, Virgil, who deified Augustus as the savior of the world in his classic piece of propaganda, The Aeneid. Historians later suspected that Virgil knew his masterpiece was really a load of fictitious fairy tales, including his depiction of Caesar Augustus as the world’s Savior. As he lay on his deathbed he pleaded that it be thrown in the fire. Nevertheless the deception had infiltrated the heart of western man and placed its blot on world history. The world still bows to the glories of the golden days of Imperial Rome which was built by Augustus Caesar. Rome had brought the world under subjection by its iron will. There was peace and quiet in the world thanks to Rome. - But not really.

For one, the rebellion of the Jews had not come close to ending. Antisemitism was aroused. The Jews continued to agitate. Each time thousands of Jews were killed. As a result, the average Roman looked at every Jew as a person hostile to Rome. Jews were officially designated as having "enemy status" -- dediticci in Latin. The Jews left in the land of Israel had been decimated and were unable to mount any kind of force to fight. But a number of Jews were living outside Israel. Historians estimate that there were about 5-7 million Jews living in the Roman Empire and at least 60% of that number were living outside the land of Israel. Places like Alexandria, Egypt (one of the most cosmopolitan cities of that era) alone had a Jewish population of about 250,000 and boasted the largest synagogue in the world. There were continued problems and minute commotions throughout the empire at this time but nothing special until a military campaign by the Emperor Trajan in 114 AD began a series of incidents that caused the first major  ‘commotion’ of the Age of the Signs of Jesus’ Return. Not surprisingly it was a Jewish rebellion, a rebellion that led to their dismissal from Israel, the leveling of Jerusalem, the change of its name and its reconfiguration into a totally modern Roman city and changed Israel’s name into Palestine.   


The War of Kittos: A little commotion

In 114 C.E. the emperor Trajan embarked on a military campaign against the other world power the Parthian (Persian) Empire east of Israel (today Iraq and Iran). After initial success, Trajan's legions suffered defeats and were forced to retreat. The Jews of the Parthian Empire fought side by side with their Persian allies and embarked on a series of covert military actions within Roman territory. The Roman’s recognized Jewish involvement in these guerrilla actions and exacted reprisals on the Jews. Several major Jewish communities in the Diaspora; in Cyprus, Libya, Alexandria and Mesopotamia were decimated. This commotion is known as The War of Kittos after the Roman military governor of Judea, Lucius Quietus, who brutally persecuted the Jewish population of Israel. Jesus had said when you hear of these frightening things don’t think that it’s all over and I that I’m about to return. The first grand commotion of the Age was still more than a decade away from coming to a head.


The bar chocba revolt of 130


Hadrian inherited the throne after Trajan’s death becoming emperor in 117 AD, he inaugurated - at least at first - an atmosphere of tolerance and apparent goodwill and peace around the empire which extended to the Jews. When Emperor Hadrian vowed to rebuild Jerusalem from the wreckage in 130 A.D., he considered reconstructing Jerusalem as a gift for the Jewish people. The Jews awaited with hope, because Hadrian was considered a moderate. But after Hadrian visited Jerusalem, he decided quite surprisingly to build Aelia Capitolina in honor of his mother which would be inhabited by his legionnaires.

He even had considered allowing the Jews to rebuild the Temple, a proposal that was opposed stringently by the Hellenists (Greeks) in the East. Why Hadrian changed his attitude to one of outright hostility toward the Jews is unknown. The reason is because providence would not allow it, for it would have been out of time. The Temple can only be rebuilt at the end of the Age and the time was not right. Miraculously, Hadrian did a 180 and instead of letting the Jews rebuild, Hadrian formulated a plan to transform Jerusalem into a pagan city-state on the Roman polis model with a shrine to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish Temple to honor his own mother. Perhaps it was his mother or a faction of advisors around him that caused him to change his mind. But nothing could have exacerbated the ire or be worse in Jewish eyes than to replace the torn down Temple with a shrine to a Roman to the Roman god of gods, Jupiter. It was certain that Hadrian intended to destroy Jewish ways and tradition and have it disappear from the world.

Hadrian's new plans included temples to the major regional deities, and certain Roman gods; the city had formerly been the single Holy City of most forms of Judaism.

Aelia came from Hadrian's nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the former Jewish temple, the Temple Mount.[2] The city was without walls, protected by a light garrison of the Tenth Legion, during the Late Roman Period. The detachment at Jerusalem, which apparently encamped all over the city’s western hill, was responsible for preventing Jews from returning to the city. Roman enforcement of this prohibition continued through the fourth century. The Latin name Aelia is the source of the Arabic term Iliya (إلياء), an early Islamic name for Jerusalem.

Hadrian also decided to never allow Jews to re-enter the city ever again. Fundamentalist Jews, incensed at this harsh decree, secretly started putting aside arms from the Roman munitions workshops; soon after, a revolt broke out under Simeon ben Kosiba. This Bar Kokhba revolt, which the Romans managed to suppress, enraged Hadrian, and he came to be determined to erase Judaism from the province; Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina, and Jews were banned from entering the city, on pain of death, except during Tisha B'Av. The Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia. Hadrian thus systematically changed the face of Jerusalem to a Roman style polis.

The two pairs of main roads - the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) - in Aelia Capitolina. The urban plan of Aelia Capitolina was that of a typical Roman town wherein main thoroughfares crisscrossed the urban grid lengthwise and widthwise[3]. The urban grid was based on the usual central north-south road (cardo) and central east-west route (decumanus). However, as the main cardo ran up the western hill, and the Temple Mount blocked the eastward route of the main decumanus, a second pair of main roads was added; the secondary cardo ran down the tyropoean valley, and the secondary decumanus ran just to the north of the temple mount. The main Hadrianic cardo terminated not far beyond its junction with the decumanus, where it reached the Roman garrison's encampment, but in the Byzantine era it was extended over the former camp to reach the southern walls of the city.

The two cardines converged near the Damascus Gate, and a semicircular piazza covered the remaining space; in the piazza a columnar monument was constructed, hence the traditional name for the gate - Bab el-Amud (Gate of the Column). Tetrapylon were constructed at the other junctions between the main roads. This street pattern has been preserved through Jerusalem's later history; the western cardo is Suq Khan ez-Zeit (Olive-oil Inn Market), the southern decumanus is both the Street of the Chain and Suq el-Bazaar (Bazaar Market; called David Street by Israelis), the eastern cardo is Al-wad Road (Valley road), and the northern decumanus is now the Via Dolorosa. The original thoroughfare, flanked by rows of columns and shops, was about 73 feet (22 meters) wide (roughly the equivalent of a present-day six lane motorway), but buildings have extended onto the streets over the centuries, and the modern lanes replacing the ancient grid are now quite narrow. The substantial remains of the western cardo have now been exposed to view near the junction with Suq el-Bazaar, and remnants of one of the tetrapylon are preserved in the 19th century Franciscan chapel at the junction of the Via Dolorosa and Suq Khan ez-Zeit.

As was standard for new Roman cities, Hadrian placed the city's main Forum at the junction of the main cardo and decumanus, now the location for the (smaller) Muristan. Adjacent to the Forum, at the junction of the same cardo, and the other decumanus, Hadrian built a large temple to the goddess Venus, which later became the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; despite 11th century destruction, which resulted in the modern Church having a much smaller footprint, several boundary walls of Hadrian's temple have been found among the archaeological remains beneath the Church[4]. The Struthion Pool lay in the path of the northern decumanus, so Hadrian placed vaulting over it, added a large pavement on top, and turned it into a secondary Forum[5]; the pavement can still be seen under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion[.


 The first of the significant false messiahs of the age BAR KOCHBA also was the leader the first truly significant war and commotion within the Roman borders itself. Before this jewish revolt the wars and commotions had been basically been confined to border wars and punitive forays into territories outside the roman yoke.

Jewish outrage at his actions led to one of the single greatest revolts of the Roman Era. Simon Bar Kosiba led the uprising, which began in full force in 132 CE.

For many years, historians did not write very much about Simon Bar Kosiba. But then, archeologists discovered some of his letters in Nahal Hever near the Dead Sea. If you go to the Israel Museum you can see these letters and they are absolutely fascinating. Some of them pertain to religious observance, because his army was a totally religious army. But they also contain a tremendous amount of historical facts. We learn that the Jews participating in the revolt were hiding out in caves. (These caves have also been found - full of belongings of Bar Kosiba's people. The belongings - pottery, shoes, etc. - are on display in the Israel Museum, and the caves, though bare, are open to tourists.)

From the letters and other historical data, we learn that in 132 CE, Bar Kosiba organized a large guerilla army and succeeded in actually throwing the Romans out of Jerusalem and Israel and establishing, albeit for a very brief period, an independent Jewish state. The Talmud (Sanhedrin 97b) states that he established an independent kingdom that lasted for two and half years.

Bar Kosiba's success caused many to believe -- among them Rabbi Akiva, one of the wisest and holiest of Israel's rabbis -- that he could be the Messiah. He was nicknamed "Bar Kochba" or "Son of Star," an allusion to a verse in the Book of Numbers (24:17): "there shall come a star out of Jacob." This star is understood to refer to the Messiah.

Bar Kochba did not turn out to be the Messiah, and later the rabbis wrote that his real name was Bar Kosiva meaning "Son of a Lie" -- highlighting the fact that he was a false Messiah.

At the time, however, Bar Kochba - who was a man of tremendous leadership abilities - managed to unite the entire Jewish people around him. Jewish accounts describe him as a man of tremendous physical strength, who could uproot a tree while riding on a horse. This is probably an exaggeration, but he was a very special leader and undoubtedly had messianic potential, which is what Rabbi Akiva recognized in him.

Jewish sources list Bar Kochba's army at 100,000 men, but even if that is an overestimate and he had half that number, it was still a huge force.

United, the Jews were a force to be reckoned with. They overran the Romans, threw them out of the land of Israel, declared independence and even minted coins. That is a pretty unique event in the history of the Roman Empire.


Rome could not let this be. Such boldness had to be crushed and those responsible punished -- brutally and totally.

But the Jews were not easily overcome. Hadrian poured more and more troops into Israel to fight the Bar Kochba forces until the Romans had enlisted almost half of their entire army, as many as twelve of the twenty four legions of the empire may have been brought into Israel (three times as many as they had sent in to crush the Great Revolt 65 years earlier) to crush the revolt.

Heading this mammoth force was Rome's best general, Julius Severus. But even with all this might behind him, Julius Severus was afraid to meet the Jews in open battle. This fact alone is very telling, because the Romans were the masters of open battle. But they feared the Jews because they saw them as being willing to die for their faith - a mentality the Romans thought suicidal. So what happened?

The Roman historian Dio Cassius tells us:

"Severus did not venture to attack his opponents in the open at any one point in view of their numbers and their desperation, but by intercepting small groups. Thanks to the numbers of soldiers and his officers, and by depriving them of food and shutting them up, he was able -- rather slowly to be sure, but with comparatively little danger -- to crush, exhaust and exterminate them. Very few of them in fact survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and 985 of their most famous villages were razed to the ground, and 580,000 men were slain in various raids and battles, and the number of those who perished by famine, disease and fire was past finding out.

"Thus nearly the whole of Judea was made desolate, a result of which the people had had forewarning before the war. For the tomb of Solomon, which the Jews regarded as an object of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed. And many wolves and hyenas rushed howling into the cities. Many Romans, however, perished in this war. Therefore, Hadrian, in writing to the Senate, did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by emperors: 'If you and your children are in health it is well and I and my legions are in health.'"

This account of Deo Cassius - even if he is exaggerating the numbers - is very interesting. He tells us that the revolt was very bloody and very costly.

Indeed, the Romans lost an entire legion in battle. The 22nd Roman legion walked into an ambush and was slaughtered and never reconstituted. By the end of the revolt the Romans had to bring virtually half the army of the entire Roman Empire into Israel to crush the Jews.


Apparently the Jews came very close to winning the war. Indeed, they did win for a time. Why did they lose in the end? The sages say they lost because they were too arrogant. Having tasted victory they adopted the attitude of , "by my strength and my valor I did this." (Deut. 8:17)

Bar Kochba too became arrogant. He saw himself winning. He heard people calling him the Messiah. Certainly, if Rabbi Akiva thought so, then he had the potential to be Israel's Ultimate Leader. He also became corrupted by his power and even beat his uncle, the great Rabbi Elazr HaModai , to death, having accepted false accusations that he was a Roman spy (3). Because of these faults he began to lose battles and was forced into retreat and guerrilla warfare.

In Judaism we are taught that while people must make the effort, it is God that wins the wars. It is not human strength nor human might that's doing it.


Bar Kochba made his final stand in the city of Betar, which is to the southwest of Jerusalem. You can go visit it today, thought ancient Betar has not been excavated. The Talmud (in Gittin 57a) relates what happened in Betar:

"They had the custom in Betar that when a baby boy was born they planted a cedar tree and for a baby girl they planted a pine tree, and when they would marry they would cut them down and make a marriage canopy of the branches. One day the daughter of Caesar was passing and the shaft of her litter broke. They cut down a cedar and brought it to her. The Jews of Betar fell upon them and beat them. They reported to Caesar that the Jews were rebelling and marched against them ... they killed [Jewish] men, women and children until their blood flowed into the Mediterranean Sea ... It was taught that for seven years the gentiles cultivated their vineyards with the blood of Israel without requiring manure for fertilization."

The city fell on the saddest day in the Jewish calendar -- the 9th of Av of the year 135, the same date as both the First and the Second Temple fell.

The Romans, in their fury, did not want to allow the Jewish bodies to be buried; they wanted to leave them out in the open to rot. According to tradition, the bodies lay in the open for months but did not rot. Today, when Jews say the Grace after Meals, Birkat HaMazon, they add a special blessing (ha tov u'mativ) as a way of thanking God for this act of mercy in Betar.

Exhausted, the Romans have had enough of the Jews who had caused them more manpower and material losses than any other people in the history of Empire. At the end of the Bar Kochba revolt, Hadrian decided that the way not to have another one is to cut off the Jews from connection to their beloved land.

Exile Part 38

The Romans sought to extinguish Jewish presence in Jerusalem by renaming it Aelia Capitolina, and by changing Israel to Palestine.

No people had revolted more or caused the Romans greater manpower or material losses than the Jews. But they had done so at a great price to themselves as well.

The Roman historian Dio Cassius writes that over half a million Jews died in the fighting. Even if this figure is exaggerated, there is no doubt that hundreds of thousands of Jews did die and the country was laid low.

The Jewish challenge to Rome that had begun in 66 CE had lasted almost 70 years. How such a comparatively small group could take on the might of Rome over and over again and for so long is hard to fathom. But perhaps the answer lies in the reason behind the conflict.

It was not so much a fight over territory or property, as it was a fight over the very way of life. Monotheism and the laws of the Torah were so deeply ingrained in the Jews that any attempt to separate the people from the essence of Judaism was seen as the death of the very soul of the nation.

The Jews found reserves in themselves beyond normal human boundaries, like a mother who is capable of superhuman feats of strength to defend the life of her child.

In the end the Jews were crushed. And the Romans did everything in their power to make sure that they would stay crushed. They wanted to make sure that no Jew was ever in a position to rally his brethren again.

Their solution: separate the Jews from their land.


As part of this policy of erasing the Jewish presence from Israel, Hadrian leveled Jerusalem and on top of the rubble rebuilt the pagan city he had planned, which he named Aelia Capitolina-Aelia in honor of his own name, Pulbius Aelius Hadrianus, and Capitolina in honor of the god Jupiter , whose temple was located on the Capitolene hill in Rome.

Through the heart of the city, he built a columned esplanade called the Cardo. (Today, the excavated Cardo, albeit in its later 6th Century C.E. Byzantine form, stands in the Old City of Jerusalem as a reminder of that time.)

Whatever Jews remained in the area were strictly forbidden to enter Aelia Capitolina. The only day that Jews were permitted to enter the city was the 9th of Av, so that they could be reminded of their greatest disaster and weep over the ruins of the Temple, of which nothing remained, save some of the retaining walls surrounding the Temple Mount. (The Kotel -- a section of the Western Wall that was dubbed the "Wailing Wall" -- was the only piece of those retaining walls that Jews could access for hundreds of years. And this is where they came and wept and prayed.)

For the first time since King David made it Israel's capital a thousand years earlier, Jerusalem was empty of Jews. It's ironic that the first city in history to be made intentionally and completely Juden rein, "Jew free," (to borrow a term later used by the Nazis) was their very own Jerusalem.

But that was not all.

To further squelch any nationalistic feeling, Hadrian renamed the land Philistia (Palestine) after the Philistines, an extinct people who once occupied the Mediterranean coastal area and who were some of the bitterest enemies of the Jews described in the Bible.

This name survived in Christian writings, to be resurrected in 1917, after World War I, when the British took over the Middle East, having conquered the Ottoman Empire. They named the lands east and west of the Jordan River - including the country of Jordan which the British created in 1923 -- the Palestine Mandate. It is from this time that the Arabs living in this area get the name Palestinians. (Of course, at that time the Jews living in the Palestine Mandate were called Palestinians too.)


The Roman plan sought not only to separate Jews from the land of Israel, it also sought to separate them from Judaism.

Writes historian Rabbi Berel Wein in his Echoes of Glory (p. 217):

"Their [Roman] plan was to eliminate the scholars and sages of Israel, who were, after all, the true leaders of the Jews, and to forbid the practice of Judaism, the lifeblood of Israel, thus guaranteeing the Jews' demise as a counter-force to Roman culture and hegemony. The Sabbath, circumcision, public study and teaching of Torah, as well as observances of all Jewish ritual and customs, were forbidden."

One of the great rabbis of the time who simply refused to abide by these decrees was Rabbi Akiva. Although many rabbis did likewise and were killed by the Romans for their acts of disobedience, Rabbi Akiva deserves special mention because of his stature in the Jewish world and the particular way he met his death.

It is fascinating to note that Rabbi Akiva did not even begin to study Torah until age 40. Until that time he had been an uneducated shepherd. But then he fell in love, and his beloved Rachel said she would marry him only if he studied Torah. At first he thought the task impossible, but then he saw a stone that had been hollowed out by dripping water. He said: "If water, which is soft, can hollow out a stone, which is hard, how much more would the words of the Torah, which are hard, be able to cut through and make an impression on my heart, which is soft."

Thus he began his studies and in a short period of time was considered one of the wisest men of Israel. Students from all over flocked to learn from him, and at one point, he was reported to head a chain of schools totaling 24,000 students.

The Talmud abounds with stories about Rabbi Akiva. One of the most famous is the story of four great sages who entered pardes, the "orchard" -- that is they engaged in mystical meditative techniques and ascended into realms of Divine consciousness. Of the four, three met terrible fates as a result of their mystical foray -- one died, another went insane, and the third became a heretic. Only Rabbi Akiva "entered in peace and emerged in peace." (4)

A person like Rabbi Akiva, who lived on such a high spiritual level and who possessed an uncompromising dedication to Torah, could not be silenced by Roman decrees.

When the Romans learned that Rabbi Akiva was openly teaching Torah they decided to make a public example of his punishment.

They arrested him and probably took him to the hippodrome in Caesarea where on (or around) Yom Kippur in 136 CE, they staged a prolonged torture of the great sage. This horrible spectacle included having Rabbi Akiva's skin flayed with iron combs.

Rabbi Akiva, along with many other great Rabbis, went to his death, sanctifying God's name, with the words of the Shema on his lips: "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One." (5) Rabbi Akiva's spirit exemplified the spirit of the sages who against the greatest odds sought to keep Judaism alive. We shall see next how they succeeded.


1) The War of Kittos is barely mentioned in Jewish sources. The most extensive reference can be found in the Talmud, Ta'anit 18b.
2) See: Midrash, Breishit Rabbah 64:10
3) See: Talmud, Tanit 4:5
4) See: Talmud: Ketubot 62b-63a; Nedarim 50a; Chagigah 15b-16a
5) See Talmud: Brachot 61b. The account of the execution of-





                                                                            Matthew 24:3

And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?


Jesus said:

                                                                            Matthew 24:6

And ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.


                                                                               Mark 13:7

And when ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet.

                                                                               Luke 21:9

But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified: for these things must first come to pass; but the end is not by and by.




Historic records show that in the last 600 years each passing

century holds a larger number of major wars!


                                                                 14th century - 1 major war

                                                                 15th century - 1 major war

                                                                 16th century - 0 major war

                                                                 17th century - 2 major wars

                                                                 18th century - 5 major wars

                                                                 19th century - 8 major wars

                                                                20th century - 14 major wars




                                                                        WARS   1500-1940



                                                           WARS OF MODERN CIVILIZATION


            This list of wars from 1500 to 1940 is intended to include all hostilities involving members of the family of nations, whether international, civil, colonial, or imperial, which were recognized as states of war in the legal sense or which involved over 50,000 troops.


                                    Taken from "A Study of War" by Quincy Wright, Published 1942

                                                         CHRONOLOGY OF WARS 1337-1991

                                        "Warfare, A Chronological History" 1991 Quartro Pub. plc








            1337-1457 Hundred Years War


            1419-1434 Hussite Wars

            1455-1485 War of the Roses

            1476-1477 Swiss-Burgundian Wars


            1567-1648 Netherlands War of Independence


            1618-1648 Thirty Years' War

            1642-1646 First English Civil War

            1648-1651 Second English Civil War

            1688-1697 War of the League of Augsburg

            1689-1692 War of the Glorious Revolution


            1700-1721 Great Northern War

            1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession

            1740-1748 War of Austrian Succession

            1756-1763 Seven Years' War

            1775-1783 American War of Independence

            1792-1802 The French Revolution


            1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars

            1812-1815 United States-British War

            1846-1848 United States-Mexican War

            1853-1856 Crimean War

            1857-1858 Indian Mutiny

            1861-1865 American Civil War

            1866        Austro-Prussian War

            1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War

            1880-1881 First Boer War

            1882-1889 British Egyptian and sudan Campaigns

            1899-1902 Second Boer War




            1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War

            1912-1913 Balkan Wars

            1914-1918 First World War

            1936-1939 Spanish Civil War

            1937-1945 Sino-Japanese War

            1938-1939 Russo-Japanese Border Clashes

            1939-1945 Second World War

            1945-1949 Chinese Civil War

            1945-1949 Indonesian War of Independence

            1946-1954 Indo-China War

            1948-1949 Berlin Airlift

            1948-1949 Israeli-Arab War

            1948-1960 Malayan Emergency

            1950-1953 Korean War


            1952-1960 Kenyan Emergency

            1953-1959 Cuban Civil War

            1954-1975 Laos Civil War

            1954-1962 Algerian War

            1955-1959 Cyprus

            1955        India-Pakistan War

            1956        Sinai-Suez

            1956        Hungarian Uprising

            1958        Lebanon Civil War

            1959-1962 China-India War

            1960-1965 Congo Civil War

            1961-       Eritrea

            1961        Bay of Pigs

            1961-1975 Vietnam War

            1962-1969 Yemen

            1962-1966 Brunei-Borneo

            1967        Arab-Israeli "Six Days" War

            1967-1970 Nigerian Civil War

            1968        Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia

            1968-1988 Chad Civil War

            1969-1972 Israeli-Arab War of Attrition

            1969-       Northern Ireland

            1969        Honduras-El Salvador

            1971        India-pakistan War

            1973        October "Yom Kippur" War

            1975-       Lebanon Civil War

            1977-1988 Ogaden War

            1978-1989 Vietnamese Occupation of Cambodia

            1979-1988 Afghanistan War

            1979-1990 Nicaraguan Civil War

            1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War

            1982        Israeli Invasion of Lebanon

            1982        Falklands Conflict

            1983-       Srilanka Civil War

            1991        Gulf War





High up posted:


Matthew 24:6

And ye shall hear of WARS AND rumors of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all [these things] must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

Mark 13:7

And when ye shall hear of WARS AND rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for [such things] must needs be; but the end [shall] not [be] yet.

Luke 21:9

But when ye shall hear of WARS AND commotions, be not terrified: for these things must first come to pass; but the end [is] not by and by.